Animals’ Chronic Stress Has Life-Long Consequences

Wild animals may suffer something akin to post-traumatic stress disorder in environments with both little food and many predators, says University of Toronto research.

The study, published in this month’s Proceedings of the Royal Society, highlights the complex relationship between chronic stress and song sparrow reproduction and survival. The study tested the hypothesis that the never-ending tension between finding food and avoiding predators affects the individual at such a