Forum für Wissenschaft, Industrie und Wirtschaft

Hauptsponsoren:     3M 
Datenbankrecherche:

 

New test for tuberculosis could improve treatment, prevent deaths in Southern Africa

21.11.2012
A new rapid test for tuberculosis (TB) could substantially and cost-effectively reduce TB deaths and improve treatment in southern Africa—a region where both HIV and tuberculosis are common—according to a new study by Harvard School of Public researchers.

"This test is one of the most significant developments in TB control options in many years," said lead author Nicolas Menzies, a PhD candidate in health policy at Harvard School of Public Health. "Our study is the first to look at the long-term consequences of this test when incorporated into routine health programs." The study appeared online November 20, 2012 in PLOS Medicine.

The study will be available after the embargo lifts here: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001347

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that kills more than 1.5 million people annually—primarily in low- and middle-income countries. An estimated 9 million people developed the disease in 2010. HIV-infected patients are particularly vulnerable to TB, which is spread through airborne droplets when people with active disease cough or sneeze.

Rapid and accurate diagnosis is key to preventing the spread of the disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently recommended the use of Xpert, an automated DNA test that can show a result within two hours, for people at high risk of multi-drug resistant TB and/or HIV-associated TB. Many countries are already moving to adopt the test.

Menzies, senior author Joshua Salomon, professor of global health at HSPH, and colleagues conducted a modeling study to investigate the potential health and economic consequences of implementing the Xpert test in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland. They found that replacing the current diagnostic approach (which relies on identifying TB in patient's sputum using a microscope) with one based on the Xpert test would prevent an estimated 132,000 TB cases and 182,000 TB deaths in southern Africa over 10 years, reducing by 28% the proportion of the population with active TB.

The researchers estimated that the cost of widespread implementation of the Xpert test in southern Africa would be US$460 million over the next 10 years, with the majority of these additional costs arising from increased utilization of TB and HIV treatment services. In particular, as the new test provides information on TB drug resistance, many more patients would be referred for treatment of multi-drug resistant TB, which is expensive in this setting. The additional HIV treatment costs are a result of the success of the intervention—as individuals coinfected with TB and HIV receive better TB care, their survival improves, increasing the total number of people receiving HIV treatment.

Taking into account both the additional costs and health benefits from use of the new technology, adoption of the Xpert test in southern Africa would be a good value for the money, according to WHO standards. The researchers found that the cost per year of healthy life gained from adopting the new test ranged from US$792 in Swaziland to US$1,257 in Botswana. While these results suggest that scaling up Xpert can be a good health investment, the cost per healthy year gained is substantially higher in this study than in previous reports, and the economic results raise questions about affordability that will be critical for policy makers to consider.

Menzies also cautioned that the study's findings may not be applicable elsewhere, and that other countries may find more cost-effective interventions than Xpert to adopt first. "Given the fundamental influence of HIV on TB dynamics and intervention costs, care should be taken when interpreting the results of this analysis outside of settings with high HIV prevalence," he said.

Support for the study was provided in part by UNITAID and a training grant from the Massachusetts General Hospital's Program in Cancer Outcomes and Training (NIH Grant No. R25 CA092203).

"Population Health Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Diagnosis with Xpert MTB/RIF: A Dynamic Simulation and Economic Evaluation," Menzies NA, Cohen T, Lin H-H, Murray M, Salomon JA (2012) PLoS Med 9(11): e1001347. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001347

Harvard School of Public Health is dedicated to advancing the public's health through learning, discovery and communication. More than 400 faculty members are engaged in teaching and training the 1,000-plus student body in a broad spectrum of disciplines crucial to the health and well being of individuals and populations around the world. Programs and projects range from the molecular biology of AIDS vaccines to the epidemiology of cancer; from risk analysis to violence prevention; from maternal and children's health to quality of care measurement; from health care management to international health and human rights. For more information on the school visit www.hsph.harvard.edu.

HSPH on Twitter: http://twitter.com/HarvardHSPH
HSPH on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/harvardpublichealth
HSPH on You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/user/HarvardPublicHealth
HSPH home page: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu

Todd Datz | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Mobile phone test can reveal vision problems in time
11.02.2016 | University of Gothenburg

nachricht Proteomics and precision medicine
08.02.2016 | University of Iowa Health Care

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Gravitationswellen 100 Jahre nach Einsteins Vorhersage entdeckt

LIGO öffnet mit der Beobachtung kollidierender schwarzer Löcher ein neues Fenster zum Universum / Entscheidende Beiträge von Forschern der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft und der Leibniz Universität Hannover

Zum ersten Mal haben Wissenschaftler Kräuselungen der Raumzeit, sogenannte Gravitationswellen, beobachtet, die – ausgelöst von einem Großereignis im fernen...

Im Focus: Messkampagne POLSTRACC: Starker Ozonabbau über der Arktis möglich

Die arktische Stratosphäre war in diesem Winter bisher außergewöhnlich kalt, damit sind alle Voraussetzungen für das Auftreten eines starken Ozonabbaus in den nächsten Wochen gegeben. Diesen Schluss legen erste Ergebnisse der vom Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) koordinierten Messkampagne POLSTRACC nahe, die seit Ende 2015 in der Arktis läuft. Eine wesentliche Rolle spielen dabei vertikal ausgedehnte polare Stratosphärenwolken, die zuletzt weite Bereiche der Arktis bedeckten: An ihrer Oberfläche finden chemische Reaktionen statt, welche den Ozonabbau beschleunigen. Diese Wolken haben die Klimaforscher nun ungewöhnlicherweise bis in den untersten Bereich der Stratosphäre beobachtet.

„Weite Bereiche der Arktis waren über einen Zeitraum von mehreren Wochen von polaren Stratosphärenwolken zwischen etwa 14 und 26 Kilometern Höhe bedeckt –...

Im Focus: AIDS-Impfstoffproduktion in Algen

Pflanzen und Mikroorganismen werden vielfältig zur Medikamentenproduktion genutzt. Die Produktion solcher Biopharmazeutika in Pflanzen nennt man auch „Molecular Pharming“. Sie ist ein stetig wachsendes Feld der Pflanzenbiotechnologie. Hauptorganismen sind vor allem Hefe und Nutzpflanzen, wie Mais und Kartoffel – Pflanzen mit einem hohen Pflege- und Platzbedarf. Forscher um Prof. Ralph Bock am Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie in Potsdam wollen mit Hilfe von Algen ein ressourcenschonenderes System für die Herstellung von Medikamenten und Impfstoffen verfügbar machen. Die Praxistauglichkeit untersuchten sie an einem potentiellen AIDS-Impfstoff.

Die Produktion von Arzneimitteln in Pflanzen und Mikroorganismen ist nicht neu. Bereits 1982 gelang es, durch den Einsatz gentechnischer Methoden, Bakterien so...

Im Focus: Einzeller mit Durchblick: Wie Bakterien „sehen“

Ein 300 Jahre altes Rätsel der Biologie ist geknackt. Wie eine internationale Forschergruppe aus Deutschland, Großbritannien und Portugal herausgefunden hat, nutzen Cyanobakterien – weltweit vorkommende mikroskopisch kleine Einzeller – das Funktionsprinzip des Linsenauges, um Licht wahrzunehmen und sich darauf zuzubewegen. Der Schlüssel zu des Rätsels Lösung war eine Idee aus Karlsruhe: Jan Gerrit Korvink, Professor am KIT und Leiter des Instituts für Mikrostrukturtechnik (IMT) am KIT, nutzte Siliziumplatten und UV-Licht, um den Brechungsindex der Einzeller zu messen.

 

Im Focus: Production of an AIDS vaccine in algae

Today, plants and microorganisms are heavily used for the production of medicinal products. The production of biopharmaceuticals in plants, also referred to as “Molecular Pharming”, represents a continuously growing field of plant biotechnology. Preferred host organisms include yeast and crop plants, such as maize and potato – plants with high demands. With the help of a special algal strain, the research team of Prof. Ralph Bock at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology in Potsdam strives to develop a more efficient and resource-saving system for the production of medicines and vaccines. They tested its practicality by synthesizing a component of a potential AIDS vaccine.

The use of plants and microorganisms to produce pharmaceuticals is nothing new. In 1982, bacteria were genetically modified to produce human insulin, a drug...

Alle Focus-News des Innovations-reports >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

IHR
JOB & KARRIERE
SERVICE
im innovations-report
in Kooperation mit academics
Veranstaltungen

SUMA-Kongress 2016 – Die offene Web-Gesellschaft 4.0

12.02.2016 | Veranstaltungen

Career Center deutscher Hochschulen tagen an der Europa-Universität Viadrina

12.02.2016 | Veranstaltungen

Frauen in der digitalen Arbeitswelt: Gestaltung für die IT-Branche und das Ingenieurswesen

11.02.2016 | Veranstaltungen

 
B2B-VideoLinks
Weitere VideoLinks >>>
Aktuelle Beiträge

Ultraschnelle Kontrolle von Spinströmen durch Laserlicht

12.02.2016 | Physik Astronomie

SCHOTT stellt auf der Photonics West zukunftsweisende Lösungen für die Optik vor

12.02.2016 | Messenachrichten

Große Sauerstoffquellen im Erdinneren

12.02.2016 | Geowissenschaften