Forum für Wissenschaft, Industrie und Wirtschaft

Hauptsponsoren:     3M 
Datenbankrecherche:

 

New test for tuberculosis could improve treatment, prevent deaths in Southern Africa

21.11.2012
A new rapid test for tuberculosis (TB) could substantially and cost-effectively reduce TB deaths and improve treatment in southern Africa—a region where both HIV and tuberculosis are common—according to a new study by Harvard School of Public researchers.

"This test is one of the most significant developments in TB control options in many years," said lead author Nicolas Menzies, a PhD candidate in health policy at Harvard School of Public Health. "Our study is the first to look at the long-term consequences of this test when incorporated into routine health programs." The study appeared online November 20, 2012 in PLOS Medicine.

The study will be available after the embargo lifts here: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001347

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that kills more than 1.5 million people annually—primarily in low- and middle-income countries. An estimated 9 million people developed the disease in 2010. HIV-infected patients are particularly vulnerable to TB, which is spread through airborne droplets when people with active disease cough or sneeze.

Rapid and accurate diagnosis is key to preventing the spread of the disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently recommended the use of Xpert, an automated DNA test that can show a result within two hours, for people at high risk of multi-drug resistant TB and/or HIV-associated TB. Many countries are already moving to adopt the test.

Menzies, senior author Joshua Salomon, professor of global health at HSPH, and colleagues conducted a modeling study to investigate the potential health and economic consequences of implementing the Xpert test in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland. They found that replacing the current diagnostic approach (which relies on identifying TB in patient's sputum using a microscope) with one based on the Xpert test would prevent an estimated 132,000 TB cases and 182,000 TB deaths in southern Africa over 10 years, reducing by 28% the proportion of the population with active TB.

The researchers estimated that the cost of widespread implementation of the Xpert test in southern Africa would be US$460 million over the next 10 years, with the majority of these additional costs arising from increased utilization of TB and HIV treatment services. In particular, as the new test provides information on TB drug resistance, many more patients would be referred for treatment of multi-drug resistant TB, which is expensive in this setting. The additional HIV treatment costs are a result of the success of the intervention—as individuals coinfected with TB and HIV receive better TB care, their survival improves, increasing the total number of people receiving HIV treatment.

Taking into account both the additional costs and health benefits from use of the new technology, adoption of the Xpert test in southern Africa would be a good value for the money, according to WHO standards. The researchers found that the cost per year of healthy life gained from adopting the new test ranged from US$792 in Swaziland to US$1,257 in Botswana. While these results suggest that scaling up Xpert can be a good health investment, the cost per healthy year gained is substantially higher in this study than in previous reports, and the economic results raise questions about affordability that will be critical for policy makers to consider.

Menzies also cautioned that the study's findings may not be applicable elsewhere, and that other countries may find more cost-effective interventions than Xpert to adopt first. "Given the fundamental influence of HIV on TB dynamics and intervention costs, care should be taken when interpreting the results of this analysis outside of settings with high HIV prevalence," he said.

Support for the study was provided in part by UNITAID and a training grant from the Massachusetts General Hospital's Program in Cancer Outcomes and Training (NIH Grant No. R25 CA092203).

"Population Health Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Diagnosis with Xpert MTB/RIF: A Dynamic Simulation and Economic Evaluation," Menzies NA, Cohen T, Lin H-H, Murray M, Salomon JA (2012) PLoS Med 9(11): e1001347. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001347

Harvard School of Public Health is dedicated to advancing the public's health through learning, discovery and communication. More than 400 faculty members are engaged in teaching and training the 1,000-plus student body in a broad spectrum of disciplines crucial to the health and well being of individuals and populations around the world. Programs and projects range from the molecular biology of AIDS vaccines to the epidemiology of cancer; from risk analysis to violence prevention; from maternal and children's health to quality of care measurement; from health care management to international health and human rights. For more information on the school visit www.hsph.harvard.edu.

HSPH on Twitter: http://twitter.com/HarvardHSPH
HSPH on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/harvardpublichealth
HSPH on You Tube: http://www.youtube.com/user/HarvardPublicHealth
HSPH home page: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu

Todd Datz | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Improving memory with magnets
28.03.2017 | McGill University

nachricht Graphene-based neural probes probe brain activity in high resolution
28.03.2017 | Graphene Flagship

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Entwicklung miniaturisierter Lichtmikroskope - „ChipScope“ will ins Innere lebender Zellen blicken

Das Institut für Halbleitertechnik und das Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, beide Mitglieder des Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, sind Partner des kürzlich gestarteten EU-Forschungsprojektes ChipScope. Ziel ist es, ein neues, extrem kleines Lichtmikroskop zu entwickeln. Damit soll das Innere lebender Zellen in Echtzeit beobachtet werden können. Sieben Institute in fünf europäischen Ländern beteiligen sich über die nächsten vier Jahre an diesem technologisch anspruchsvollen Projekt.

Die zukünftigen Einsatzmöglichkeiten des neu zu entwickelnden und nur wenige Millimeter großen Mikroskops sind äußerst vielfältig. Die Projektpartner haben...

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Das anwachsende Ende der Ordnung

Physiker aus Konstanz weisen sogenannte Mermin-Wagner-Fluktuationen experimentell nach

Ein Kristall besteht aus perfekt angeordneten Teilchen, aus einer lückenlos symmetrischen Atomstruktur – dies besagt die klassische Definition aus der Physik....

Im Focus: Wegweisende Erkenntnisse für die Biomedizin: NAD⁺ hilft bei Reparatur geschädigter Erbinformationen

Eine internationale Forschergruppe mit dem Bayreuther Biochemiker Prof. Dr. Clemens Steegborn präsentiert in 'Science' neue, für die Biomedizin wegweisende Forschungsergebnisse zur Rolle des Moleküls NAD⁺ bei der Korrektur von Schäden am Erbgut.

Die Zellen von Menschen und Tieren können Schäden an der DNA, dem Träger der Erbinformation, bis zu einem gewissen Umfang selbst reparieren. Diese Fähigkeit...

Im Focus: Designer-Proteine falten DNA

Florian Praetorius und Prof. Hendrik Dietz von der Technischen Universität München (TUM) haben eine neue Methode entwickelt, mit deren Hilfe sie definierte Hybrid-Strukturen aus DNA und Proteinen aufbauen können. Die Methode eröffnet Möglichkeiten für die zellbiologische Grundlagenforschung und für die Anwendung in Medizin und Biotechnologie.

Desoxyribonukleinsäure – besser bekannt unter der englischen Abkürzung DNA – ist die Trägerin unserer Erbinformation. Für Prof. Hendrik Dietz und Florian...

Alle Focus-News des Innovations-reports >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

IHR
JOB & KARRIERE
SERVICE
im innovations-report
in Kooperation mit academics
Veranstaltungen

Industriearbeitskreis »Prozesskontrolle in der Lasermaterialbearbeitung ICPC« lädt nach Aachen ein

28.03.2017 | Veranstaltungen

Neue Methoden für zuverlässige Mikroelektronik: Internationale Experten treffen sich in Halle

28.03.2017 | Veranstaltungen

Wie Menschen wachsen

27.03.2017 | Veranstaltungen

 
VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
Weitere VideoLinks >>>
Aktuelle Beiträge

Hannover Messe: Elektrische Maschinen in neuen Dimensionen

28.03.2017 | HANNOVER MESSE

Dimethylfumarat – eine neue Behandlungsoption für Lymphome

28.03.2017 | Medizin Gesundheit

Antibiotikaresistenz zeigt sich durch Leuchten

28.03.2017 | Biowissenschaften Chemie