Forum für Wissenschaft, Industrie und Wirtschaft

Hauptsponsoren:     3M 
Datenbankrecherche:

 

Pictures effective in warning against cigarette smoking

13.11.2012
Pictorial health warnings on cigarette packaging make an impact on hard-to-reach smokers, American Journal of Preventive Medicine reports

Health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packages that use pictures to show the health consequences of smoking are effective in reaching adult smokers, according to the results of a new study published in the December issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Although previous studies have demonstrated that HWLs with pictorial imagery are more effective than HWLs with only text in increasing knowledge about smoking dangers and promoting the benefits of quitting, this new research shows which kind of pictures appears to work best among adult smokers in the U.S., including smokers from disadvantaged groups where smoking rates are highest.

"More than 40 countries have implemented pictorial health warning labels. The U.S. was scheduled for implementation in 2012, but tobacco industry litigation has delayed implementation by claiming that the pictorial warnings the FDA proposed violate the industry's right to free speech. To inform future warning label policy development and implementation, more data are needed on U.S. consumer responses to various kinds of warning label content," says lead investigator James F. Thrasher, PhD, of the Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health at the University of South Carolina in Columbia, SC. "The current study addresses this issue, while focusing on responses among smokers from low income populations where smoking remains prevalent because previous tobacco control interventions have been less successful in reaching this group than higher income populations."

With financial support from the South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Institute residing at the Medical University of South Carolina CTSA, the National Institute of Drug Abuse, and the U.S. National Cancer Institute, Dr. Thrasher and his research team conducted field experiments with nearly 1,000 adult smokers from July 2011 to January 2012. To be eligible for the study, these smokers had to have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetimes and to be currently smoking on a daily basis. They were recruited for the study at public places, including supermarkets, flea markets, and sporting events, in low- and middle-income areas in South Carolina. The population was randomly split at a 1:4 ratio into two groups: a control group and an experimental condition group.

The control group of 207 smokers rated each of the four HWLs that are currently on cigarette packs, which warn about lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, pregnancy complications, and carbon monoxide inhalation. The experimental condition group evaluated nine different pictorial labels, representing a variety of health topics, including cancer, heart disease, and lung disease caused by second-hand smoke. Each message combined text with an image depicting either a graphic image of diseased organs, imagery of human suffering, or an abstract symbol, including both imagery that the FDA has recommended for warning labels in the US and alternative imagery used in other countries.

Respondents in both groups assessed their reactions to the messages according to a 10-point scale for credibility, personal relevance, and perceived effectiveness.

"The present study provided the first direct test of the hypothesis that pictorial health warning labels work better than text-only labels among people with low health literacy," explains Dr. Thrasher. "Ratings of the personal relevance and effectiveness of pictorial labels compared to textual labels were no different for smokers in high- compared to low-health literacy groups. However, smokers with low-health literacy rated pictorial labels as more credible than text-only warnings, whereas no difference was found among smokers with high health literacy."

The reaction to the specific type of imagery used in the pictorial HWL also varied by study participants' health literacy and race. HWLs with abstract imagery produced the greatest differences between these two groups, although this type of HWL imagery produced the weakest responses overall. Across the board, participants rated the graphic HWLs as the most effective and most likely to influence them.

"These results suggest that the FDA should consider implementing warning labels with more graphic imagery in order to maximize the impact of warnings across different populations of adult smokers, including more disadvantaged smokers," Dr. Thrasher notes.

A cost-effective means of intervention, pictorial labels and specifically graphic imagery have the potential to significantly influence adult smokers to understand the range and magnitude of smoking-related risks, while encouraging them to quit.

Beverly Lytton | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.eu.elsevierhealth.com/?sgCountry=DE

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Improving memory with magnets
28.03.2017 | McGill University

nachricht Graphene-based neural probes probe brain activity in high resolution
28.03.2017 | Graphene Flagship

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Entwicklung miniaturisierter Lichtmikroskope - „ChipScope“ will ins Innere lebender Zellen blicken

Das Institut für Halbleitertechnik und das Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, beide Mitglieder des Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, sind Partner des kürzlich gestarteten EU-Forschungsprojektes ChipScope. Ziel ist es, ein neues, extrem kleines Lichtmikroskop zu entwickeln. Damit soll das Innere lebender Zellen in Echtzeit beobachtet werden können. Sieben Institute in fünf europäischen Ländern beteiligen sich über die nächsten vier Jahre an diesem technologisch anspruchsvollen Projekt.

Die zukünftigen Einsatzmöglichkeiten des neu zu entwickelnden und nur wenige Millimeter großen Mikroskops sind äußerst vielfältig. Die Projektpartner haben...

Im Focus: A Challenging European Research Project to Develop New Tiny Microscopes

The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.

To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...

Im Focus: Das anwachsende Ende der Ordnung

Physiker aus Konstanz weisen sogenannte Mermin-Wagner-Fluktuationen experimentell nach

Ein Kristall besteht aus perfekt angeordneten Teilchen, aus einer lückenlos symmetrischen Atomstruktur – dies besagt die klassische Definition aus der Physik....

Im Focus: Wegweisende Erkenntnisse für die Biomedizin: NAD⁺ hilft bei Reparatur geschädigter Erbinformationen

Eine internationale Forschergruppe mit dem Bayreuther Biochemiker Prof. Dr. Clemens Steegborn präsentiert in 'Science' neue, für die Biomedizin wegweisende Forschungsergebnisse zur Rolle des Moleküls NAD⁺ bei der Korrektur von Schäden am Erbgut.

Die Zellen von Menschen und Tieren können Schäden an der DNA, dem Träger der Erbinformation, bis zu einem gewissen Umfang selbst reparieren. Diese Fähigkeit...

Im Focus: Designer-Proteine falten DNA

Florian Praetorius und Prof. Hendrik Dietz von der Technischen Universität München (TUM) haben eine neue Methode entwickelt, mit deren Hilfe sie definierte Hybrid-Strukturen aus DNA und Proteinen aufbauen können. Die Methode eröffnet Möglichkeiten für die zellbiologische Grundlagenforschung und für die Anwendung in Medizin und Biotechnologie.

Desoxyribonukleinsäure – besser bekannt unter der englischen Abkürzung DNA – ist die Trägerin unserer Erbinformation. Für Prof. Hendrik Dietz und Florian...

Alle Focus-News des Innovations-reports >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

IHR
JOB & KARRIERE
SERVICE
im innovations-report
in Kooperation mit academics
Veranstaltungen

Industriearbeitskreis »Prozesskontrolle in der Lasermaterialbearbeitung ICPC« lädt nach Aachen ein

28.03.2017 | Veranstaltungen

Neue Methoden für zuverlässige Mikroelektronik: Internationale Experten treffen sich in Halle

28.03.2017 | Veranstaltungen

Wie Menschen wachsen

27.03.2017 | Veranstaltungen

 
VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
Weitere VideoLinks >>>
Aktuelle Beiträge

Von Agenten, Algorithmen und unbeliebten Wochentagen

28.03.2017 | Unternehmensmeldung

Hannover Messe: Elektrische Maschinen in neuen Dimensionen

28.03.2017 | HANNOVER MESSE

Dimethylfumarat – eine neue Behandlungsoption für Lymphome

28.03.2017 | Medizin Gesundheit