Forum für Wissenschaft, Industrie und Wirtschaft

Hauptsponsoren:     3M 
Datenbankrecherche:

 

In probing mysteries of glass, researchers find a key to toughness

27.02.2013
In a paper published online Feb. 26 in the journal Nature Communications, a Yale University team and collaborators propose a way of predicting whether a given glass will be brittle or ductile — a desirable property typically associated with metals like steel or aluminum — and assert that any glass could have either quality.

Ductility refers to a material's plasticity, or its ability to change shape without breaking.

"Most of us think of glasses as brittle, but our finding shows that any glass can be made ductile or brittle," said Jan Schroers, a professor of mechanical engineering and materials science at Yale, who led the research with Golden Kumar, a professor at Texas Tech University. "We identified a special temperature that tells you whether you form a ductile or brittle glass."

The key to forming a ductile glass, they said, is cooling it fast. Exactly how fast depends on the nature of the specific glass.

Focusing on a new group of glasses known as bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) — metal alloys, or blends, that can be extremely pliable yet also as strong as steel — researchers studied the effect of a so-called critical fictive temperature (CFT) on the glasses' mechanical properties at room temperature.

When forming from liquid, there is a temperature at which glass becomes too viscous for reconfiguration and freezes. This temperature is called the glass transition temperature. Based on experiments with three representative bulk metallic glasses, the researchers said there is also, for each distinct alloy, a critical temperature that determines the brittleness or plasticity of the glass. This is the CFT.

Researchers said it's possible to categorize glasses in two groups — those that will be brittle because in liquid form their CFT is above the glass transition temperature, and those that will be ductile, because in liquid form their CFT is below the glass transition temperature.

They previously thought a liquid's chemical composition alone would determine whether a glass would be brittle or ductile.

"That's not the case," Schroers said. "We can make any glass theoretically ductile or brittle. And it is the critical fictive temperature which determines how experimentally difficult it is to make a ductile glass. That is the major contribution of this work."

The finding applies theoretically to all glasses, not metallic glasses only, he said.

"A glass can have completely different properties depending on the rate at which you cool it," Schroers said. "If you cool it fast, it is very ductile, and if you cool it slow it¹s very brittle. We anticipate that our finding will contribute to the design of ductile glasses, and in general contribute to a deeper understanding of glass formation."

The paper's lead author is Golden Kumar of Texas Tech University. Pascal Neibecker of the University of Augsburg in Germany and Yanhui Liu of Yale are co-authors.

The U.S. Department of Energy provided support for the research.

Eric Gershon | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.yale.edu

More articles from Materials Sciences:

nachricht New design improves performance of flexible wearable electronics
23.06.2017 | North Carolina State University

nachricht Plant inspiration could lead to flexible electronics
22.06.2017 | American Chemical Society

All articles from Materials Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Klima-Satellit: Mit robuster Lasertechnik Methan auf der Spur

Hitzewellen in der Arktis, längere Vegetationsperioden in Europa, schwere Überschwemmungen in Westafrika – mit Hilfe des deutsch-französischen Satelliten MERLIN wollen Wissenschaftler ab 2021 die Emissionen des Treibhausgases Methan auf der Erde erforschen. Möglich macht das ein neues robustes Lasersystem des Fraunhofer-Instituts für Lasertechnologie ILT in Aachen, das eine bisher unerreichte Messgenauigkeit erzielt.

Methan entsteht unter anderem bei Fäulnisprozessen. Es ist 25-mal wirksamer als das klimaschädliche Kohlendioxid, kommt in der Erdatmosphäre aber lange nicht...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: Die Schweiz in Pole-Position in der neuen ESA-Mission

Die Europäische Weltraumagentur ESA gab heute grünes Licht für die industrielle Produktion von PLATO, der grössten europäischen wissenschaftlichen Mission zu Exoplaneten. Partner dieser Mission sind die Universitäten Bern und Genf.

Die Europäische Weltraumagentur ESA lanciert heute PLATO (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillation of stars), die grösste europäische wissenschaftliche Mission zur...

Alle Focus-News des Innovations-reports >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

IHR
JOB & KARRIERE
SERVICE
im innovations-report
in Kooperation mit academics
Veranstaltungen

Von Batterieforschung bis Optoelektronik

23.06.2017 | Veranstaltungen

10. HDT-Tagung: Elektrische Antriebstechnologie für Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

22.06.2017 | Veranstaltungen

„Fit für die Industrie 4.0“ – Tagung von Hochschule Darmstadt und Schader-Stiftung am 27. Juni

22.06.2017 | Veranstaltungen

 
VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
Weitere VideoLinks >>>
Aktuelle Beiträge

Radioaktive Elemente in Cassiopeia A liefern Hinweise auf Neutrinos als Ursache der Supernova-Explosion

23.06.2017 | Physik Astronomie

Dünenökosysteme modellieren

23.06.2017 | Ökologie Umwelt- Naturschutz

Makro-Mikrowelle macht Leichtbau für Luft- und Raumfahrt effizienter

23.06.2017 | Materialwissenschaften