Forum für Wissenschaft, Industrie und Wirtschaft

Hauptsponsoren:     3M 
Datenbankrecherche:

 

UC Santa Barbara scientist studies methane levels in cross-continent drive

16.05.2013
After taking a rented camper outfitted with special equipment to measure methane on a cross-continent drive, a UC Santa Barbara scientist has found that methane emissions across large parts of the U.S. are higher than currently known, confirming what other more local studies have found. Their research is published in the journal Atmospheric Environment.

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, stronger than carbon dioxide on a 20-year timescale, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, though on a century timescale, carbon dioxide is far stronger. "This research suggests significant benefits to slowing climate change could result from reducing industrial methane emissions in parallel with efforts on carbon dioxide," said Ira Leifer, a researcher with UCSB's Marine Science Institute.


This image shows cross-country data superimposed over satellite data from SCIAMACHY and from GOSAT. Satellite data shows positive methane anomalies for the southern US are centered on eastern Texas.

Credit: UCSB

Leifer was joined by two UCSB undergraduate students on the road trip from Los Angeles to Florida, taking a primarily southern route through Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Louisiana, and along the Gulf of Mexico. They used specialized instrumentation, a gas chromatograph, to measure methane. The device was mounted in the RV, with an air ram on the roof that collected air samples from in front of the vehicle.

"We tried to pass through urban areas during nighttime hours, to avoid being stuck in traffic and sampling mostly exhaust fumes," Leifer said. "Someone was always monitoring the chromatograph, and when we would see a strong signal, we would look to see what potential sources were in the area, and modify the survey to investigate and, if possible, circumnavigate potential sources."

The researchers meandered slowly through areas of fossil fuel activity, such as petroleum and natural gas production, refining, and distribution areas, and other areas of interest. The wide range of sources studied included a coal-loading terminal, a wildfire, and wetlands.

The team analyzed the data in conjunction with researchers at the University of Bremen, Germany, who analyzed inventories and satellite data from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard the European Space Agency's (ESA) ENVISAT satellite to confirm the finding of strong methane sources in regions of fossil fuel activity. The surface measurements found methane levels increased as the researchers moved toward Houston, and then decreased as they continued westward –– the same trend observed in satellite data spanning the continent.

Previous methane studies have focused primarily on large-scale airborne data, which were challenging to separate from local sources, according to Leifer. In fact, clear identification of individual sources often could not be conducted, requiring computer models and other surface measurements.

The team compared maps of estimated methane emissions based on data from the International Energy Agency of the U.S. Department of Energy with satellite methane maps. They found that, in some cases, to explain observed higher methane concentrations required higher emissions than current emission maps present, particularly in large regions of fossil fuel industrial activity. In other cases, though, they could rule out that wetlands such as swamps may have been important. In such cases, separating wetland methane contributions from fossil fuel industrial contributions was not possible with their approach, Leifer said, "This is a topic we are investigating further through new research," he added.

"Methane is the strongest human greenhouse gas on a political or short timescale, and also has more bang for the buck in terms of addressing climate change," said Leifer. "This research supports other recent findings suggesting that fugitive emissions from fossil fuel industrial activity actually are the largest methane source. This clearly indicates a need for efforts to focus on reducing these methane emissions."

The researchers found the highest methane concentrations in areas with significant refinery activity, and in California in a Central Valley region of oil and gas production. Methane levels near refineries were not uniform, varying greatly from spot to spot and at different times. Nighttime concentrations were dramatically enhanced when the winds died down, forming a calm, shallow atmospheric layer near the surface, according to Leifer.

Perhaps the most surprising discovery was made in the Los Angeles area, where the study highlighted the importance of geologic methane emissions in the North Los Angeles Basin, centered on the La Brea Tar Pits. Rough estimation of emissions from the data suggests 10-20 percent of the methane emissions from Los Angeles could be natural geologic, influenced by the vast number of abandoned wells throughout the area.

This study was supported by a National Science Foundation Rapid Response Grant, by NASA and ESA, as well as JAXA, the Japanese Space Agency. Support also came from the Department of Energy, through the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium, the University of Mississippi, the University of Bremen, and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) Space Administration.

According to Leifer, these results illustrate the need for satellite technology to further this type of research and also to provide guidance to decision makers. "We are working with methane data from the Japanese satellite, GOSAT, to continue these investigations," Leifer said. "We look forward to when new tools, like ESA's CarbonSat and NASA's HyspIRI spacecraft, are in orbit to help, as well as results from a new joint NASA/ESA airborne campaign, COMEX, with University of Bremen researchers to improve further methane satellite designs." COMEX will test different airborne remote sensing technologies for application to methane observations.

George Foulsham | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucsb.edu

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht For a rare prairie orchid, science is making climate change local
12.02.2016 | USDA Forest Service - Northern Research Station

nachricht NASA sees Tropical Cyclone Winston form
12.02.2016 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Gravitationswellen 100 Jahre nach Einsteins Vorhersage entdeckt

LIGO öffnet mit der Beobachtung kollidierender schwarzer Löcher ein neues Fenster zum Universum / Entscheidende Beiträge von Forschern der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft und der Leibniz Universität Hannover

Zum ersten Mal haben Wissenschaftler Kräuselungen der Raumzeit, sogenannte Gravitationswellen, beobachtet, die – ausgelöst von einem Großereignis im fernen...

Im Focus: Messkampagne POLSTRACC: Starker Ozonabbau über der Arktis möglich

Die arktische Stratosphäre war in diesem Winter bisher außergewöhnlich kalt, damit sind alle Voraussetzungen für das Auftreten eines starken Ozonabbaus in den nächsten Wochen gegeben. Diesen Schluss legen erste Ergebnisse der vom Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) koordinierten Messkampagne POLSTRACC nahe, die seit Ende 2015 in der Arktis läuft. Eine wesentliche Rolle spielen dabei vertikal ausgedehnte polare Stratosphärenwolken, die zuletzt weite Bereiche der Arktis bedeckten: An ihrer Oberfläche finden chemische Reaktionen statt, welche den Ozonabbau beschleunigen. Diese Wolken haben die Klimaforscher nun ungewöhnlicherweise bis in den untersten Bereich der Stratosphäre beobachtet.

„Weite Bereiche der Arktis waren über einen Zeitraum von mehreren Wochen von polaren Stratosphärenwolken zwischen etwa 14 und 26 Kilometern Höhe bedeckt –...

Im Focus: AIDS-Impfstoffproduktion in Algen

Pflanzen und Mikroorganismen werden vielfältig zur Medikamentenproduktion genutzt. Die Produktion solcher Biopharmazeutika in Pflanzen nennt man auch „Molecular Pharming“. Sie ist ein stetig wachsendes Feld der Pflanzenbiotechnologie. Hauptorganismen sind vor allem Hefe und Nutzpflanzen, wie Mais und Kartoffel – Pflanzen mit einem hohen Pflege- und Platzbedarf. Forscher um Prof. Ralph Bock am Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie in Potsdam wollen mit Hilfe von Algen ein ressourcenschonenderes System für die Herstellung von Medikamenten und Impfstoffen verfügbar machen. Die Praxistauglichkeit untersuchten sie an einem potentiellen AIDS-Impfstoff.

Die Produktion von Arzneimitteln in Pflanzen und Mikroorganismen ist nicht neu. Bereits 1982 gelang es, durch den Einsatz gentechnischer Methoden, Bakterien so...

Im Focus: Einzeller mit Durchblick: Wie Bakterien „sehen“

Ein 300 Jahre altes Rätsel der Biologie ist geknackt. Wie eine internationale Forschergruppe aus Deutschland, Großbritannien und Portugal herausgefunden hat, nutzen Cyanobakterien – weltweit vorkommende mikroskopisch kleine Einzeller – das Funktionsprinzip des Linsenauges, um Licht wahrzunehmen und sich darauf zuzubewegen. Der Schlüssel zu des Rätsels Lösung war eine Idee aus Karlsruhe: Jan Gerrit Korvink, Professor am KIT und Leiter des Instituts für Mikrostrukturtechnik (IMT) am KIT, nutzte Siliziumplatten und UV-Licht, um den Brechungsindex der Einzeller zu messen.

 

Im Focus: Production of an AIDS vaccine in algae

Today, plants and microorganisms are heavily used for the production of medicinal products. The production of biopharmaceuticals in plants, also referred to as “Molecular Pharming”, represents a continuously growing field of plant biotechnology. Preferred host organisms include yeast and crop plants, such as maize and potato – plants with high demands. With the help of a special algal strain, the research team of Prof. Ralph Bock at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology in Potsdam strives to develop a more efficient and resource-saving system for the production of medicines and vaccines. They tested its practicality by synthesizing a component of a potential AIDS vaccine.

The use of plants and microorganisms to produce pharmaceuticals is nothing new. In 1982, bacteria were genetically modified to produce human insulin, a drug...

Alle Focus-News des Innovations-reports >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

IHR
JOB & KARRIERE
SERVICE
im innovations-report
in Kooperation mit academics
Veranstaltungen

SUMA-Kongress 2016 – Die offene Web-Gesellschaft 4.0

12.02.2016 | Veranstaltungen

Career Center deutscher Hochschulen tagen an der Europa-Universität Viadrina

12.02.2016 | Veranstaltungen

Frauen in der digitalen Arbeitswelt: Gestaltung für die IT-Branche und das Ingenieurswesen

11.02.2016 | Veranstaltungen

 
B2B-VideoLinks
Weitere VideoLinks >>>
Aktuelle Beiträge

Ultraschnelle Kontrolle von Spinströmen durch Laserlicht

12.02.2016 | Physik Astronomie

SCHOTT stellt auf der Photonics West zukunftsweisende Lösungen für die Optik vor

12.02.2016 | Messenachrichten

Große Sauerstoffquellen im Erdinneren

12.02.2016 | Geowissenschaften