Forum für Wissenschaft, Industrie und Wirtschaft

Hauptsponsoren:     3M 
Datenbankrecherche:

 

Scientists discover new method of gene identification

12.11.2012
Findings will help our genetic understanding of dangerous new viruses

Scientists studying the genes and proteins of human cells infected with a common cold virus have identified a new gene identification technique that could increase the genetic information we hold on animals by around 70 to 80 per cent. The findings, published in Nature Methods, could revolutionise our understanding of animal genetics and disease, and improve our knowledge of dangerous viruses such as SARS that jump the species barrier from animals to humans.

Modern advances in genome sequencing — the process of determining the genetic information and variation controlling everything from our eye colour to our vulnerability to certain diseases — has enabled scientists to uncover the genetic codes of a wide range of animals, plants and insects.

Until now, correctly identifying the genes and proteins hidden inside the genetic material of a newly sequenced species has been a monumental undertaking requiring the careful observation and cataloguing of vast amounts of data about the thousands of individual genes that make up any given animal, plant or insect.

Dr David Matthews, the study's lead author and a Senior Lecturer in Virology at the University of Bristol's School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, said: "Gene identification is mainly led by computer programmes which search the genome for regions that look like genes already identified in other animals or humans. However, this type of analysis is not always effective."

The Bristol team has now discovered a more effective way of detecting the genetic information present in animals, plants and insects using cutting-edge analysis tools to directly observe the genes and all the proteins they make.

To prove their technique worked, the researchers conducted an experiment to see how good their process was at gene discovery. Human cells were infected with a well-understood common cold bug to mimic a newly discovered virus. These infected cells were then analysed using the technique as if they were cells from a newly sequenced organism infected with a newly discovered virus.

The resulting list of "discovered" genes and proteins, when compared to the genetic information already known about humans and cold virus, proved extremely successful and demonstrated the power of this method.

A similar analysis of hamster cells provided directly observed evidence for the existence of thousands of genes and proteins in hamsters in a single relatively inexpensive experiment. Direct evidence for the existence of almost all of theses genes and proteins in hamsters is not available in the 'official' lists of hamster genes and proteins.

Dr Matthews added: "These findings open up the potential to take powerful analysis tools currently used to study human diseases and apply them to study any animal, insect or even plants – something previously either very challenging or simply not possible. This technique will also make it easier and much more efficient for scientists to study anything from farm animals and their diseases to insect pests that damage crops.

"In recent years, a number of dangerous new viruses have been transmitted from animals to humans including Influenza, SARS, Ebola, Hendra and Nipah viruses. Earlier this year three people became seriously ill and two of them died when they contracted a new SARS-like virus in the Middle East which is thought to have come directly from bats.

"Why bats harbour these viruses with limited ill effect is a mystery as the genetic make-up of these creatures is poorly understood. We are starting to apply our technique to laboratory grown bat cells to analyse the genetic and protein content of bats to gain more insight into their genetics and to understand how they are able to apparently co-exist with these viruses which all too often prove fatal in humans."

Caroline Clancy | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.bristol.ac.uk

Further reports about: SARS genetic code genetic information genome sequencing human cell proteins

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed
18.01.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht 127 at one blow...
18.01.2017 | Stiftung Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz-Institut für Biodiversität der Tiere

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Textiler Hochwasserschutz erhöht Sicherheit

Wissenschaftler der TU Chemnitz präsentieren im Februar und März 2017 ein neues temporäres System zum Schutz gegen Hochwasser auf Baumessen in Chemnitz und Dresden

Auch die jüngsten Hochwasserereignisse zeigen, dass vielerorts das natürliche Rückhaltepotential von Uferbereichen schnell erschöpft ist und angrenzende...

Im Focus: Wie Darmbakterien krank machen

HZI-Forscher entschlüsseln Infektionsmechanismen von Yersinien und Immunantworten des Wirts

Yersinien verursachen schwere Darminfektionen. Um ihre Infektionsmechanismen besser zu verstehen, werden Studien mit dem Modellorganismus Yersinia...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Erforschung von Elementarteilchen in Materialien

Laseranregung von Semimetallen ermöglicht die Erzeugung neuartiger Quasiteilchen in Festkörpersystemen sowie ultraschnelle Schaltung zwischen verschiedenen Zuständen.

Die Untersuchung der Eigenschaften fundamentaler Teilchen in Festkörpersystemen ist ein vielversprechender Ansatz für die Quantenfeldtheorie. Quasiteilchen...

Alle Focus-News des Innovations-reports >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

IHR
JOB & KARRIERE
SERVICE
im innovations-report
in Kooperation mit academics
Veranstaltungen

Künftige Rohstoffexperten aus aller Welt in Freiberg zur Winterschule

18.01.2017 | Veranstaltungen

Bundesweiter Astronomietag am 25. März 2017

17.01.2017 | Veranstaltungen

Über intelligente IT-Systeme und große Datenberge

17.01.2017 | Veranstaltungen

 
VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
Weitere VideoLinks >>>
Aktuelle Beiträge

Der erste Blick auf ein einzelnes Protein

18.01.2017 | Biowissenschaften Chemie

Das menschliche Hirn wächst länger und funktionsspezifischer als gedacht

18.01.2017 | Biowissenschaften Chemie

Zur Sicherheit: Rettungsautos unterbrechen Radio

18.01.2017 | Verkehr Logistik