Forum für Wissenschaft, Industrie und Wirtschaft

Hauptsponsoren:     3M 
Datenbankrecherche:

 

Protein balance key in preventing cancer

28.02.2013
Fox Chase researchers find that two antagonistic proteins help keep leukemia at bay, pointing to new potential treatments

Two proteins that scientists once thought carried out the same functions are actually antagonists of each other, and keeping them in balance is key to preventing diseases such as cancer, according to new findings published in the February 25 issue of Developmental Cell by scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center. The results suggest that new compounds could fight cancer by targeting the pathways responsible for maintaining the proper balance between the proteins.

"It's our job now to understand how we can intervene therapeutically in this system, so we can restore balance when it's thrown off," says study author David L. Wiest, PhD, professor and deputy chief scientific officer at Fox Chase.

The two proteins—"Rpl22" and "Rpl22-like1", which contribute to the process by which additional cellular proteins are made—are created from two similar genes, leading researchers to previously believe they were performing identical functions in the body. "What we're finding is that is absolutely not true," says Wiest. "Not only are they performing different functions, they are antagonizing each other."

During the study, Wiest and his team knocked out Rpl22 in zebrafish—a common model of human disease. Without Rpl22, the zebrafish don't develop a type of T cells (a blood cell) that helps fight infections. The same developmental defect was observed when they knocked out Rpl22-like1, indicating that both proteins are independently required to enable stem cells to give rise to T cells.

But when the researchers tried to restore T cells in zebrafish that lacked Rpl22 by adding back Rpl22-like1, it didn't work. The reverse was also true—Rpl22 was not enough to restore function after the researchers eliminated Rpl22-like1. These results led Wiest and his team to believe that, although the proteins are both involved in producing stem cells, they do not perform the same function.

To learn more about the proteins' individual functions, the researchers looked at the levels of different proteins involved in stem cell production when either Rpl22 or Rpl22-like1 was absent. Without Rpl22-like1, cells had lower levels of a protein known as Smad1—a critical driver of stem cell development. And when Rpl22 disappeared, levels of Smad1 increased dramatically.

Both proteins can bind directly to the cellular RNA from which Smad1 is produced, suggesting that they maintain balance in stem cell production via their antagonistic effects on Smad1 expression, explains Wiest.

"I like to think of Rpl22 as a brake, and Rpl22-like1 as a gas pedal – in order to drive stem cell production, both have to be employed properly. If one or the other is too high, this upsets the balance of forces that regulate stem cell production, with potentially deadly effects," says Wiest.

Specifically, too much Rpl22 (the "brake"), and stem cell production shuts off, decreasing the number of blood cells and leading to problems such as anemia. Too much Rpl22-like1 (the "gas pedal"), on the other hand, can create an over-production of stem cells, leading to leukemia.

Previous research has found that Rpl22-like1 is often elevated in cancer, including 80% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Conversely, researchers have found that in other cancers, the gene that encodes Rpl22 is deleted. "Either one of these events is sufficient to alter the balance in stem cell production in a way that pushes towards cancer," says Wiest.

Co-authors on the study include Yong Zhang, Anne-Cécile E. Duc, Shuyun Rao, Xiao-Li Sun, Alison N. Bilbee, Michele Rhodes, Qin Li, Dietmar J. Kappes, and Jennifer Rhodes of Fox Chase.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, part of Temple University Health System, is one of the leading cancer research and treatment centers in the United States. Founded in 1904 in Philadelphia as one of the nation's first cancer hospitals, Fox Chase also was among the first institutions to receive the National Cancer Institute's prestigious comprehensive cancer center designation in 1974. Fox Chase researchers have won the highest awards in their fields, including two Nobel Prizes. Fox Chase physicians are routinely recognized in national rankings, and the Center's nursing program has achieved Magnet status for excellence three consecutive times. Fox Chase conducts a broad array of nationally competitive basic, translational, and clinical research and oversees programs in cancer prevention, detection, survivorship, and community outreach. For more information, call 1-888-FOX-CHASE (1-888-369-2427) or visit www.foxchase.org.

Diana Quattrone | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.fccc.edu

Further reports about: Nobel Prize Protein Rpl22-like1 T cells blood cell cellular protein stem cells

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Klima-Satellit: Mit robuster Lasertechnik Methan auf der Spur

Hitzewellen in der Arktis, längere Vegetationsperioden in Europa, schwere Überschwemmungen in Westafrika – mit Hilfe des deutsch-französischen Satelliten MERLIN wollen Wissenschaftler ab 2021 die Emissionen des Treibhausgases Methan auf der Erde erforschen. Möglich macht das ein neues robustes Lasersystem des Fraunhofer-Instituts für Lasertechnologie ILT in Aachen, das eine bisher unerreichte Messgenauigkeit erzielt.

Methan entsteht unter anderem bei Fäulnisprozessen. Es ist 25-mal wirksamer als das klimaschädliche Kohlendioxid, kommt in der Erdatmosphäre aber lange nicht...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: Die Schweiz in Pole-Position in der neuen ESA-Mission

Die Europäische Weltraumagentur ESA gab heute grünes Licht für die industrielle Produktion von PLATO, der grössten europäischen wissenschaftlichen Mission zu Exoplaneten. Partner dieser Mission sind die Universitäten Bern und Genf.

Die Europäische Weltraumagentur ESA lanciert heute PLATO (PLAnetary Transits and Oscillation of stars), die grösste europäische wissenschaftliche Mission zur...

Alle Focus-News des Innovations-reports >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

IHR
JOB & KARRIERE
SERVICE
im innovations-report
in Kooperation mit academics
Veranstaltungen

Von Batterieforschung bis Optoelektronik

23.06.2017 | Veranstaltungen

10. HDT-Tagung: Elektrische Antriebstechnologie für Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

22.06.2017 | Veranstaltungen

„Fit für die Industrie 4.0“ – Tagung von Hochschule Darmstadt und Schader-Stiftung am 27. Juni

22.06.2017 | Veranstaltungen

 
VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
Weitere VideoLinks >>>
Aktuelle Beiträge

Radioaktive Elemente in Cassiopeia A liefern Hinweise auf Neutrinos als Ursache der Supernova-Explosion

23.06.2017 | Physik Astronomie

Dünenökosysteme modellieren

23.06.2017 | Ökologie Umwelt- Naturschutz

Makro-Mikrowelle macht Leichtbau für Luft- und Raumfahrt effizienter

23.06.2017 | Materialwissenschaften