Forum für Wissenschaft, Industrie und Wirtschaft

Hauptsponsoren:     3M 
Datenbankrecherche:

 

Long Noncoding RNAs Control Development of Fat Cells

15.02.2013
Whitehead Institute researchers have identified a previously unrecognized layer of genetic regulation that is necessary for the generation of undesirable white fat cells. When this regulation is disrupted, white fat cells are unable to accumulate lipid droplets or mature from their precursors.

“We’re trying to figure out what the mechanism is—what it takes to make fat cells,” says Whitehead Founding Member Harvey Lodish, who is also a professor of biology and a professor of bioengineering at MIT. “The obvious reason we’re interested in this is because a lot of people have too many of them.”

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, obesity—having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher—is a serious healthcare and economic problem in the United States. More than one-third of American adults are obese, a condition that can lead to heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and stroke. In 2008 obesity-related issues were estimated to cost $147 billion.

All of these problems are caused by an overabundance of white fat cells—adipose tissue cells that store excess energy as fat or lipid droplets. Unlike white fat cells, brown fat cells, which are most prevalent in babies and have a reduced presence in adults, use lipids as fuel to maintain a stable, warm body temperature. Understanding how both types of fat cells are formed and maintained may one day lead to anti-obesity therapies.

In the quest to understand fat-cell generation and maintenance, the Lodish lab scanned mouse fat cells to determine which of the cells’ long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are active. Of the 175 identified, 10 lncRNAs were found to play significant roles in these cells.

Residing within what was once dubbed “junk DNA”, lncRNAs have recently gained fame as important gene expression regulators that modify chromatin, enhance transcription, and promote messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation, as well as through other methods that have yet to be elucidated. Recently, the Lodish lab identified lncRNAs as playing a vital role in regulating programmed cell death during one of the final stages of red blood cell differentiation.

To determine the function of the identified active lncRNAs in fat cells, Lei Sun, a former postdoctoral researcher in the Lodish lab, and Loyal Goff from Harvard University and the Broad Institute, knocked each lncRNA down individually in fat precursor cells and analyzed the results. When 10 of these lncRNAs had reduced expression, the cells did not turn on the genes that are usually expressed in mature white fat cells, and the cells had significantly smaller lipid droplets than white fat cells with normal lncRNA expression. Their work is reported in this week’s issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

“This is the first study showing the importance of lncRNAs for the regulation of adipogeneis,” says Sun, who is now an assistant professor at Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. “Our understanding of lncRNA function in these cells is still incomplete, but in the future, this line of research may reveal new pathways that obesity drugs could target.”

This research was supported by National Institutes of Health (DK047618, DK068348, 5P01HL066105, and 1DP2OD00667), National Science Foundation, Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation, Agency of Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Searle Scholars Program, Smith Family Awards Program, and Merkin Family Foundation.

Written by Nicole Giese Rura

Harvey Lodish’s primary affiliation is with Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, where his laboratory is located and all his research is conducted. He is also a professor of biology and a professor of bioengineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Full Citation:

“Long noncoding RNAs regulate adipogenesis”

PNAS, online the week of February 11, 2013.

Lei Sun (a,1), Loyal A. Goff (b,c,d,1), Cole Trapnell (b,c,1), Ryan Alexander (a,d), Kinyui Alice Lo (a,d), Ezgi Hacisuleyman (b,e), Martin Sauvageau (b,c,e), Barbara Tazon-Vega (b,c), David R. Kelley (b,c), David G. Hendrickson (b,c), Bingbing Yuan (a), Manolis Kellis (c,d), Harvey F. Lodish (a,f,g), and John L. Rinn (b,c,e).

a. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142
b. Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138
c. The Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142
d. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139
e. Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138
f. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139
g. Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139

1. These authors contributed equally to this work.

Nicole Giese Rura | Newswise
Further information:
http://www.wi.mit.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Scientists enlist engineered protein to battle the MERS virus
22.05.2017 | University of Toronto

nachricht Insight into enzyme's 3-D structure could cut biofuel costs
19.05.2017 | DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Hauchdünne magnetische Materialien für zukünftige Quantentechnologien entwickelt

Zweidimensionale magnetische Strukturen gelten als vielversprechendes Material für neuartige Datenspeicher, da sich die magnetischen Eigenschaften einzelner Molekülen untersuchen und verändern lassen. Forscher haben nun erstmals einen hauchdünnen Ferrimagneten hergestellt, bei dem sich Moleküle mit verschiedenen magnetischen Zentren auf einer Goldfläche selbst zu einem Schachbrettmuster anordnen. Dies berichten Wissenschaftler des Swiss Nanoscience Institutes der Universität Basel und des Paul Scherrer Institutes in der Wissenschaftszeitschrift «Nature Communications».

Ferrimagneten besitzen zwei magnetische Zentren, deren Magnetismus verschieden stark ist und in entgegengesetzte Richtungen zeigt. Zweidimensionale, quasi...

Im Focus: Neuer Ionisationsweg in molekularem Wasserstoff identifiziert

„Wackelndes“ Molekül schüttelt Elektron ab

Wie reagiert molekularer Wasserstoff auf Beschuss mit intensiven ultrakurzen Laserpulsen? Forscher am Heidelberger MPI für Kernphysik haben neben bekannten...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: XENON1T: Das empfindlichste „Auge“ für Dunkle Materie

Gemeinsame Meldung des MPI für Kernphysik Heidelberg, der Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz und der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster

„Das weltbeste Resultat zu Dunkler Materie – und wir stehen erst am Anfang!“ So freuen sich Wissenschaftler der XENON-Kollaboration über die ersten Ergebnisse...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Alle Focus-News des Innovations-reports >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

IHR
JOB & KARRIERE
SERVICE
im innovations-report
in Kooperation mit academics
Veranstaltungen

14. Dortmunder MST-Konferenz zeigt individualisierte Gesundheitslösungen mit Mikro- und Nanotechnik

22.05.2017 | Veranstaltungen

Branchentreff für IT-Entscheider - Rittal Praxistage IT in Stuttgart und München

22.05.2017 | Veranstaltungen

Flugzeugreifen – Ähnlich wie PKW-/LKW-Reifen oder ganz verschieden?

22.05.2017 | Veranstaltungen

 
VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
Weitere VideoLinks >>>
Aktuelle Beiträge

Myrte schaltet „Anstandsdame“ in Krebszellen aus

22.05.2017 | Biowissenschaften Chemie

Hauchdünne magnetische Materialien für zukünftige Quantentechnologien entwickelt

22.05.2017 | Physik Astronomie

Wie sich das Wasser in der Umgebung von gelösten Molekülen verhält

22.05.2017 | Biowissenschaften Chemie