Forum für Wissenschaft, Industrie und Wirtschaft

Hauptsponsoren:     3M 
Datenbankrecherche:

 

Can Simple Measures of Labile Soil Organic Matter Predict Corn Performance?

13.02.2013
Organic matter is important for soil health and crop productivity. While an indicator of soil quality, a lot of organic matter is in extremely stable forms, and the nutrients in such forms are difficult for plants to use. The active, labile fraction, however, is a modest but important part of the organic matter.

“The labile fraction is small – usually less than 20 or even 10 percent, depending on how you define it,” explains Steve Culman, lead author of a study published online Feb. 8 in Agronomy Journal. “But it is where a lot of the action happens. It’s where soil nutrients are rapidly cycled and are interacting with microbial communities.”

The size of the labile pool, then, can be an important predictor of corn agronomic performance. But the tests used up to this point to measure those pools, such as microbial biomass and particulate organic matter, were labor intensive and expensive. Culman, in Sieg Snapp’s lab at the W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, decided to use other measurements of the labile fractions – including nitrogen mineralization and carbon mineralization – to see what information these inexpensive tests might give them. Their results suggest that simple measures of labile organic matter can reflect long-term management and short-term seasonal changes as well as predict corn performance.

To better understand labile soil organic measurements and what they could tell farmers, the researchers measured soils managed in a variety of conditions. Fields were maintained with three different management practices (conventional, integrated, and compost) and two different crop rotations (continuous corn with no cover crops and corn-soybean-wheat with cover crops). After collecting soil from the different fields, the scientists then measured carbon and nitrogen mineralization.

“What’s nice about carbon and nitrogen mineralization is they’re based on actual biological activity,” says Culman. “You take into account the soil microbes and environment for these tests.”

A long-term cropping system trial provided the perfect opportunity to test the extent to which carbon and nitrogen mineralization measurements were affected by both management practice and crop rotation. These tests, then, could be used to identify the best practices, such as fertilizer application, for a given field. This would be especially useful for nitrogen – a nutrient that is incredibly important for crop growth but is rarely measured by farmers.

“Most farmers don’t test their soils for nitrogen,” explains Culman. “They just basically apply a rate based on their yield goals, and excess nitrogen may be applied. The long-term goal would be to offer these as predictive tests for farmers so they can say, ‘Given my soil type, management, and these measures, I should apply this amount of nitrogen.’ That’s the ultimate goal.”

The predictive power of such tests for best management practices goes hand-in-hand with crop performance. The researchers also found that carbon mineralization was a better predictor of corn agronomic performance than other measures that are currently used (pre-sidress nitrate test and leaf chlorophyll). With these tests, Culman and his coauthors hope to provide farmers with better tools to manage their fields and increase crop yields.

Says Culman, “This could have tremendous impacts, locally, regionally, and nationally, in terms of having tools that better predict our cropping system performance based on soil properties.”

The full article is available for no charge for 30 days following the date of this summary. View the abstract at https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/aj/abstracts/0/0/agronj2012.0382.

A peer-reviewed international journal of agriculture and natural resource sciences, Agronomy Journal is published six times a year by the American Society of Agronomy, with articles relating to original research in soil science, crop science, agroclimatology and agronomic modeling, production agriculture, and software. For more information visit: www.agronomy.org/publications/aj

The American Society of Agronomy (ASA) www.agronomy.org, is a scientific society helping its 8,000+ members advance the disciplines and practices of agronomy by supporting professional growth and science policy initiatives, and by providing quality, research-based publications and a variety of member services.

Caroline Schneider | Newswise
Further information:
http://www.sciencesocieties.org

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht UNH researchers discover new method to detect most common bacteria contaminating oysters
23.04.2015 | University of New Hampshire

nachricht On the trail of a trace gas
21.04.2015 | Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Elektromobilität: Ultraleichtes Kraftpaket für das elektrische Fliegen

Siemens hat einen einzigartigen Elektromotor entwickelt, der hohe Leistung mit einem minimalen Gewicht kombiniert. Durch konsequente Optimierung aller Komponenten stellt der neue Antrieb in seiner Klasse einen Weltrekord beim Leistungsgewicht auf. Dadurch kommt der routinemäßige Einsatz von elektrisch angetriebenen Flugzeugen oder Helikoptern einen großen Schritt näher.

Manchmal lässt sich eine technische Revolution ganz knapp in einer einzigen Zahl zusammenfassen. In diesem Fall lautet sie: fünf Kilowatt pro Kilogramm – das...

Im Focus: Fast and Accurate 3-D Imaging Technique to Track Optically-Trapped Particles

KAIST researchers published an article on the development of a novel technique to precisely track the 3-D positions of optically-trapped particles having complicated geometry in high speed in the April 2015 issue of Optica.

Daejeon, Republic of Korea, April 23, 2015--Optical tweezers have been used as an invaluable tool for exerting micro-scale force on microscopic particles and...

Im Focus: Von Innen nach Außen: Rätsel der galaktischen Scheiben gelöst

Ein Team von Astronomen unter der Leitung von Ivan Minchev, Wissenschaftler am Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), hat mithilfe hochmoderner theoretischer Modelle das Rätsel um die Entwicklung der Galaxienscheiben gelöst. Die jetzt veröffentlichte Studie zeigt, dass sich Sternpopulationen gleichen Alters durch Galaxienkollisionen nach außen hin ausweiten. Ähnlich wie die Blüten einer Rose reichern sich diese Populationen schichtweise in der Galaxie an und formen so allmählich die dicke Scheibe.

„Wir können nun zum ersten Mal zeigen, dass dicke Scheiben nicht nur aus alten Sterngenerationen bestehen, sondern – in einem größeren Abstand zum...

Im Focus: NOAA, Tulane identify second possible specimen of 'pocket shark' ever found

Pocket sharks are among the world's rarest finds

A very small and rare species of shark is swimming its way through scientific literature. But don't worry, the chances of this inches-long vertebrate biting...

Im Focus: Morbus Crohn: neuer Entstehungsmechanismus entschlüsselt

Bakteriengemeinschaften verursachen Darmentzündung

Morbus Crohn zählt zu den chronisch-entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen (CED). Bei der Krankheit spielt die genetische Veranlagung eine Rolle - und offenbar auch...

Alle Focus-News des Innovations-reports >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

IHR
JOB & KARRIERE
SERVICE
im innovations-report
in Kooperation mit academics
Veranstaltungen

Internationale Familienunternehmensforschung

24.04.2015 | Veranstaltungen

Internationaler Tag der Immunologie am 29. April 2015

24.04.2015 | Veranstaltungen

Wirtschaftsempfang 2015: WissensRÄUME

24.04.2015 | Veranstaltungen

 
B2B-VideoLinks
Weitere VideoLinks >>>
Aktuelle Beiträge

Simulation und virtuelle Welten: Virtueller Messerundgang mit dem Smartphone

24.04.2015 | Informationstechnologie

Elektromobilität: Ultraleichtes Kraftpaket für das elektrische Fliegen

24.04.2015 | Energie und Elektrotechnik

Siemens integriert Sitop-Stromversorgung in Prozessleitsystem Simatic PCS 7

24.04.2015 | Messenachrichten